Ghelardi A, Marrai R, Bogani G, Sopracordevole F, Bay P, Tonetti A, Lombardi S, Bertacca G, Joura EA.
Vaccines (Basel). 2021 Jan 25;9(2):83. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9020083

Data suggest that adjuvant human papillomavirus (HPV)-vaccination in women treated for cervical HPV diseases reduces recurrent disease. This study investigates adjuvant HPV-vaccination and the rate of recurrence in women undergoing surgery for vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). From January 2013 to April 2020, we enrolled 149 women in a prospective case-control study. The control group (NV-group) was treated by standard surgery alone, while the study group received adjuvant vaccination soon after surgery (V-group). A follow-up was performed by vulvoscopy and HPV test. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test. HSIL recurrence was observed in 24/76 (32%) patients in NV-group and in 8/42 patients (19%) of the vaccinated group. By analysing the recurrence rate related to the incident and reactivated latent HPV infection, we found a significant difference between (17/76) 22.3% in NV-group and (2/42) 4.8% in V-group (p = 0.01). A reduction of 78.5% in incident/reactivated HPV infections was demonstrated. Data results add to the current knowledge about the mechanism of post-surgical adjuvant HPV vaccination. Our prospective study is the first to document the vaccine clinical effectiveness in preventing "reactivation" of latent HPV infections. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine administered after the surgical treatment for vulvar HSIL appears to be useful in preventing recurrent disease.

Keywords: HPV vaccination; adjuvant HPV vaccination; vulvar HSIL; vulvar HSIL treatment.

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